Over many posts I have discussed the human Morality Need.  I have argued that without some sense of morality the human species could not last a day.  I have pointed out that cultures and individuals interpret our inherited and biologically based Natural Moral Code.  Cultural interpretation of the Natural Moral Code also determines what degree and form of punishment will come from individuals who violate culturally set moral standards.  Thomas Hobbes maintained that, “to keep society going with peace and confidence, then an  artifice  – – – – –  a Leviathan – – – – – must be worked into the social contract.  This Leviathan is the state.”  (1660) I view punishment from two major perspectives towards human evil. Both viewpoints have a recognition that bad and evil deeds (actions) exist in this world. Both frames of reference demonstrate an understanding that bad and evil deeds (behaviors) call for some form of punishment. However, there are distinct differences between the two positions related to how punishment should be dished out. In the posts to come I will discuss 1.) consequential punishment, and 2.) deontological punishment.


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